Tag Archives: diet

The Leisure Revolution

Yuval Noah Harari, in his 2014 book Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, has an interesting take on the ‘agricultural revolution'; you know, where, way back, we learned to plant crops and domesticate animals. He calls it “history’s biggest fraud.” Not in the sense that it didn’t happen. It did, leading to an increase in food supply and, consequent to that, the growth of cities. His contention is that it did not lead to a better life for humankind, neither a healthier diet nor more leisure time.

5121772432_283c4f57ed_zInstead it led to a less stimulating life with the increased likelihood of starvation and disease. The starvation came about as the result of periodic natural disasters, like drought, devastating the crops we came to depend upon, and the disease came about because urban conditions are much better for spreading illness than are rural ones. As to leisure time, Harari asserts that our hunter-gatherer ancestors ambled about a wide, natural territory, often able to harvest a diverse and abundant food supply, and to do so in fewer hours than it took the average farmer to feed his family a few centuries later.

Rutger Bregman, in his 2016 book, Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-hour Workweek, makes a similar argument about the industrial revolution. It did not lead to a more leisurely life. Bregman estimates that in 1300 the average English farmer worked about 1500 hours a year in order to make a living, whereas the typical factory worker in Victorian England worked twice that many hours just to survive. The 70-hour workweek was the norm in a city like Manchester in 1850, no weekends, no vacations.

Eventually things improved. By about 1940, in the West, the 40-hour, five-day workweek was fairly standard, a change led, surprisingly enough, by none other than Henry Ford.

And then, things truly began to look up. In 1956 Richard Nixon promised Americans a four-day workweek, and by 1965, prognosticators everywhere were predicting vast increases in leisure time, with workweeks of as little as 14 hours. There was considerable hand-wringing about the coming, perplexing problem of boredom, idle hands given to inflamed immorality and violence.

It all came to a grim, grinding halt in the 1980s. Today the average guy in the U.S. works 8.4 hours per work day, or 42 hours per week. That’s very little changed in the last 50 years.

The digital revolution has brought us an accelerated life, new, not always better forms of community, grotesque economic inequality, and, unlike the industrial revolution, persistent unemployment. (Many people, like weavers, were put out of work by the industrial revolution, but then it went on to deliver a slew of different types of employment, like shop foremen.) And so far, for those people still working, it hasn’t done much for additional leisure time.

The other factor in why many of us are busier these days is what Bregman cites as “the most important development of the last decades.” The feminist revolution. While in some countries at least the workload for individuals has decreased slightly, families these days are living a blur, because these days women are contributing about 40% of the family income, and working full time to do so.

It seems that, with the coming of the digital revolution, we’ve gone and done it to ourselves again. And here’s a disconcerting note; surveys show that many people today would rather earn more than work less—so that they can live the lifestyle they’ve always dreamed of. They’d rather have that bigger house, newer car, more fashionable outfit, and dream vacation than they would more leisure time. We might call this the consumer revolution, and it’s largely a post-WWII phenomenon.

What’s to be done? Well, it’s not in fact that mysterious. Economic answers come with things like a guaranteed annual income and a progressive tax regime that effectively redistributes wealth. And there is very solid evidence as to the validity of these economic remedies, much of it to be found in Bregman’s book.

But just as relevant to the modern leisure deficit is the fact that, as indicated above, we chose these outcomes. Not always consciously, and often incrementally, without realizing the ensuing consequences, but nevertheless we had and still have choice in these matters.

We can choose to live more simply, with less stuff. We can choose to buy a smaller home, drive an older car, purchase clothing at a second-hand store, and grow a garden.

Don’t like your job? Feeling like a wage slave? Have other interests you’d love to pursue?

It’s a choice.

Eating Meat

Yesterday, more than 150 million animals were slaughtered for human consumption. The same number will die today. This is a worldwide number, and it doesn’t include marine life.

It’s a veritable animal Holocaust, happening everyday, out of sight, out of mind. And I use the H-word advisably here, not in any original way. Isaac Bashevis Singer, the Jewish, Nobel Prize-winning author who in 1935 fled the growing Nazi threat in Warsaw for New York, referred to our daily massacre of animals as “an eternal Treblinka.”

It arises from something called speciesism, the notion that humankind enjoys a set of rights which all other living species do not. It’s applied unevenly of course, without any real logic. We kill and eat cows, chickens and pigs, but protect cats, dogs, horses and… great apes, that is select wild animals. Lest you immediately think the concept is truly wacko, I would remind you that, only 50 years ago, a large number of people believed that all members of another race enjoyed considerably fewer rights than did we white folks. If we track back 200 years we find that nearly everyone in the West believed this.

Back to great apes for a moment, as we consider the wacko-ness of speciesism. Are you entirely comfortable with the idea that we capture and imprison a mountain gorilla for our edification and viewing enjoyment? Me neither. The next question would be, why not? (Sure, zookeepers argue protection of an endangered species, but if that was the only reason we would put all our resources into protecting gorillas in place.)

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Back in 2006, Dr. Colin Campbell and his son Thomas published a book called The China Study, rightly subtitling it “The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted.” Dr. Campbell is a Professor Emeritus from Cornell University, and The China Study was conducted through that University, Oxford, and The Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine in Beijing. The gist of the massive study’s findings might be summarized as diets with higher meat and dairy consumption correlate directly and significantly with higher rates of heart disease, cancer and diabetes, the so-called ‘diseases of affluence.’ Likewise with obesity, same sort of correlation.

The typical Chinese diet contains less fat, less protein, more fiber and iron, and much less animal foods than does the typical American diet. And the incidence of the most common killers in North America is far lower. Interestingly, the average Chinese citizen actually consumes more calories than does the average American, indicating that it’s not how much you eat, but what, plus how active you are.

What’s more, Dr. Campbell and his cohorts discovered that, if you were already afflicted with the diseases of affluence, a plant-based diet is in fact effective treatment of those diseases.

If you’re wondering why you haven’t heard more of this study, you might want to read Dr. Campbell’s chapters on “Why Haven’t You Heard This Before?” The experience he describes directly parallels the too-long successful campaign by the fossil fuels industry to obfuscate the climate change debate—essentially the meat, dairy and egg industries pay for research which contradicts The China Study, succeeding not in refuting the evidence presented, but in simply ‘muddying the waters,’ causing you to think there is no conclusive case to be made, either way.

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The Factory Farm: Old McDonald meets McDonald's
The Factory Farm: Old McDonald meets McDonald’s

I’ve written elsewhere on this blog about the devastating ecological effects of the livestock and fishing industries worldwide, and how the big environmental organizations like Greenpeace, in their own selfish interests, avoid criticizing these industries. With the possible exception of our global abuse of fresh water resources, no single factor contributes as much to our environmental peril as do the farmed animal industries. You likely have only to think about habitat loss, factory cattle and hog farms, and the water-born runoff of pollutants to grasp the enormity of the destructive impact, including the industry’s contribution to climate change.

There is really no doubt about it, whether you come at it from a moral, health or environmental perspective, there is no good reason for our continued consumption of animal-based foods. There is, of course and however, one overriding explanation as to why we continue to eat meat: habit.