Dark Matter

“The internet as we once knew it is officially dead.”                                                                                 Ronald Deibert, in Black Code

Although born of the military (see Origins, from the archives of this blog), in its infancy, the internet was seen as a force for democracy, transparency and the empowerment of individual citizens. The whole open source, ‘information wants to be free,’ advocacy ethos emerged and was optimistically seen by many as heralding a new age of increased ‘bottom up’ power.

Mike Licht photo
Mike Licht photo

And to a considerable extent this has proven to be the case. Political and economic authority has been undermined, greater public transparency has been achieved, and activist groups everywhere have found it easier to organize and exert influence. In more recent years, however, the dark, countervailing side of the internet has also become increasingly apparent, and all of us should be aware of its presence, and perhaps we should all be afraid.

Certainly Ronald Diebert’s 2013 book Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace should be required reading for anyone who still thinks the internet is a safe and free environment in which to privately gather information, exchange ideas, and find community. Diebert is Director of the Citizen Lab at the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto, and in that role he has had ample opportunity to peer into the frightening world of what he terms the “cyber-security industrial complex.” In an economy still operating under the shadow of the great recession, this complex is a growth industry that is estimated to now be worth as much as $150 billion annually.

It consists of firms like UK-based Gamma International, Endgame, headquartered in Atlanta, and Stockholm-based Ericsson, makers of Nokia phones. What these companies offer are software products that of course will bypass nearly all existing anti-virus systems to:

  • Monitor and record your emails, chats and IP communications, including Skype, once thought to be the most secure form of online communication.
  • Extract files from your hard drive and send them to the owners of the product, without you ever knowing it’s happened.
  • Activate the microphone or camera in your computer for surveillance of the room your computer sits in.
  • Pinpoint the geographic location of your wireless device.

These products can do all this and more, and they can do it in real time. Other software packages offered for sale by these companies will monitor social media networks, on a massive scale. As reported by the London Review of Books, one such company, ThorpeGlen, recently mined a week’s worth of call data from 50 million internet users in Indonesia. They did this as a kind of sales demo of their services.

The clients for these companies include, not surprisingly, oppressive regimes in countries like China, Iran and Egypt. And to offer some sense of why this market is so lucrative, The Wall Street Journal reported that a security hacking package was offered for sale in Egypt by Gamma for $559,279 US. Apparently the system also comes with a training staff of four.

Some of these services would be illegal if employed within Canada, but, for instance, if you are an Iranian émigré living in Canada who is active in opposition to the current Iranian regime, this legal restriction is of very little comfort. Those people interested in whom you’re corresponding with do not reside in Canada.

And even in countries like the US and Canada, as Edward Snowden has shown us, the national security agencies are not to be trusted to steer clear of our personal affairs. As Michael Hayden, former Director of the CIA, told documentary filmmaker Alex Gibney, “We steal secrets,” and none of us should be naïve enough to believe that the CIA, if they should have even the remotest interest, won’t steal our personal secrets.

All of us have to get over our collective fear of terrorist attacks and push back on the invasion of our privacy currently underway on the web. The justification for this invasion simply isn’t there. You are about as likely to die in a terrorist attack as you are as the result of a piano falling on your head.

Neither should any of us assume that, as we have ‘done nothing wrong,’ we need not be concerned with the vulnerability to surveillance that exists for all the information about us stored online. Twenty years ago, if we had thought that any agency, government or private, was looking to secretly tap our phone line, we would have been outraged, and then demanded an end to it. That sort of intervention took a search warrant, justified in court. It should be no different on the web.

An Education?

The conference was titled, “The Next New World.” It took place last month in San Francisco, and was hosted by Thomas Friedman, columnist for The New York Times and author of The World Is Flat. Friedman has been writing about the digital revolution for years now, and his thinking on the matter is wide-ranging and incisive.

In his keynote address, Friedman describes “an inflection” that occurred coincidental with the great recession of 2008—the technical transformations that began with the personal computer, continued with the internet, and are ongoing with smart phones and the cloud. Friedman is not the first to note that this transformation is the equivalent of what began in 1450 with the invention of the printing press, the so-called Gutenberg revolution. The difference is that the Gutenberg revolution took 200 years to sweep through society. The digital revolution has taken two decades.

5351622529_5d4c782817Friedman and his co-speakers at the conference are right in articulating that today’s revolution has meant that there is a new social contract extant, one based not upon high wages for middle skills (think auto manufacturing or bookkeeping), but upon high wages for high skills (think data analysis or mobile programming). Everything from driving cars to teaching children to milking cows has been overtaken by digital technology in the last 20 years, and so the average employee is now faced with a work place where wages and benefits don’t flow from a commitment to steady long term work, but where constant innovation is required for jobs that last an average of 4.6 years. As Friedman adds—tellingly I think—in today’s next new world, “no one cares what you know.” They care only about what you can do.

Friedman adds in his address that the real focus of the discussions at the conference can be abridged by two questions: “How [in this new world] does my kid get a job?” and, “How does our local school or university need to adapt?’’

All well and good. Everyone has to eat, never mind grow a career or pay a mortgage. What bothers me however, in all these worthwhile discussions, is the underlying assumption that the education happening at schools and universities should essentially equate to job training. I’ve checked the Oxford; nowhere does that esteemed dictionary define education as training for a job. The closest it comes is to say that education can be training “in a particular subject,” not a skill.

I would contend that what a young person knows, as opposed to what they can do, should matter to an employer. What’s more, I think it should matter to all of us. Here’s a definitional point for education from the Oxford that I was delighted to see: “an enlightening experience.”

A better world requires a better educated populace, especially women. For the human race to progress (perhaps survive), more people need to understand the lessons of history. More people have to know how to think rationally, act responsibly, and honour compassion, courage and commitment. None of that necessarily comes with job training for a data analyst or mobile programmer.

And maybe, if the range of jobs available out there is narrowing to ever more specific, high technical-skills work, applicable to an ever more narrow set of industries, then that set of industries should be taking on a greater role in instituting the needed training regimes. Maybe as an addendum to what can be more properly termed ‘an education.’

I’m sure that Friedman and his conference colleagues would not disagree with the value of an education that stresses knowledge, not skills. And yes, universities have become too elitist and expensive everywhere, especially in America. But my daughter attends Quest University in Squamish, British Columbia, where, in addition to studying mathematics and biology, she is obliged to take courses in Rhetoric, Democracy and Justice, and Global Perspectives.

Not exactly the stuff that is likely to land her a job in Silicon Valley, you might say, and I would have to reluctantly agree. But then I would again argue that it should better qualify her for that job. Certainly those courses will make her a better citizen, something the world is in dire need of, but I would also argue that a degree in “Liberal Arts and Sciences” does in fact better qualify her for that job, because those courses will teach her how to better formulate an argument, better understand the empowerment (and therefore the greater job satisfaction) that comes with the democratic process, and better appreciate the global implications of practically all we do workwise these days.

Damn tootin’ that education in liberal arts and sciences better qualifies her for that job in Silicon Valley. That and every other job out there.